The study explored water commons in selected regions of Nepal in the context of country’s agreement with India on the Koshi, Gandak and Mahaklai rivers. Study sites lied in Nepal’s Sunsari, Morang, Saptari, Nawalparasi and Kanchanpur districts. The study examined how the projects affected livelihood of the riparian communities in terms of water use and disaster risk management and also observed the context of water commons and the dependent communities in selected regions of Nepal It collected people’s perspectives on perceived benefits, inundation problems, their knowledge on treaties and the support that communities received during disaster events. It also explored the civic action initiated by riparian communities and highlight issues of displacement, compensation and inundation. This study suggests that existing treaties and proposed ones need to consider the fundamental role of water in nature and societies.