Policy and Planning Contestations in Squatter Settlements in Nepal

Communities living in poor and vulnerable areas should secure their interests in resilience planning and investments. Resilience is a broader term and can be specified as per the prevailing national or local conditions or as per the thematic area we intend to work in. It depends on the levels of risk and vulnerability that triggers social exclusion and marginalization (Niță and Pârvu, 2020 ). Resilience can be the ability of the system to withstand a major disruption within acceptable degradation parameters and to recover within an acceptable time and composite costs and risks (Haimes, 2009).

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