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Urban DRR toolkit

Urban DRR Toolkit is one of the significant outputs of the Safer Cities Project implemented by ISET-Nepal and funded by a consortium of four international INGOs (Lutheran World Relief, World Vision International Nepal, Adventist Development and Relief Agency- Nepal and Dan Church Aid Nepal). ISET Nepal took a lead role to develop the urban DRR toolkit for the Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration (MOFAGA),  The toolkit was prepared in close consultations with the respective municipal wards, DRR experts, Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration (MOFAGA, Ministry of Urban Development (MOUD), CBDRM Platform, IFRC, and Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) The main objective of this toolkit is to reduce disaster risk by engaging local people and municipalities in systematic implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of disaster risk reduction and management.

Climate Resilience Framework (CRF) was also referred to while developing this toolkit. CRF has been useful to assess vulnerability and identify strategies to build resilience and adaptive capacity. The CRF draws on and expands on the IPCC vulnerability assessment framework by reformulating the three factors of vulnerability exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity into four; systems, exposure, institutions, and agents. This framework is useful to identify the vulnerability of a community due to various kinds of disasters. IPCC vulnerability assessment framework is given below:

Why this toolkit is needed?

The constitution of Nepal 2015 made a provision of 753 local level governments in the nation. Out of 753 local levels, there are 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub-metropolitan cities, 276 municipalities, and 460 rural municipalities.  Index 8 of the constitution of Nepal 2015 gave responsibilities to manage disaster at the local level by preparing disaster management plan as the local government has a significant role to play in implementing disaster risk reduction initiatives. Local action is a key to effective disaster prevention and resilience.  Local communities and governments need to have the capacity to the effective disaster risk management and this toolkit provides guidelines on facilitation and using toolkits for disaster planning, implementation, and monitoring/evaluation.

Why Urban focus?

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management in the urban areas is more complex than that of rural areas. Vulnerability assessment and planning tools have not prepared particularly focusing on the urban areas. The urban population in Nepal has reached 60% of the total population. Urban poor comprises 16% of the total population thus increasing the vulnerability of the urban people and infrastructure. Vulnerability assessment and DRR management tools prepared for rural context cannot alone meet the requirements of the urban context. Urban areas are highly prone to disaster risk, industrial pollution, the use of pesticides, and hospital wastes. This toolkit focuses on urban issues and approaches to access and manage disaster risk.

Policies referred in preparation of toolkit

  • The constitution of Nepal, 2015
  • Local government operation Act 2017
  • Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act 2017
  • Local Disaster and Climate Resilience plan, 2017-2018
  • District Disaster preparedness and management, 2012-13
  • Disaster Risk Reduction National policies, 2017-18
  • Disaster Risk Reduction National Strategies Work plan 2018- 2030
  • National Urban Development strategies, 2016-17

Importance of toolkit

The purpose of preparing this toolkit is to aware and motivate the policymakers and stakeholders to work towards strengthening the DRR policy framework in the country to ensure the urban communities are disaster resilient. This toolkit helps in the implementation of disaster risk reduction and management plans by scientific method in practical life. Risk analysis, planning and implementation, monitoring, and evaluation tools are included in this toolkit. Furthermore, the toolkit will be helpful for urban communities in risk reduction and management. Procedures and how to use each tool are explained in the respective step/section. In case of not being able to use the tools, individuals can take help from concerned experts/institutions. Methodologies will helpful to maximize and utilization of local resources.

Role of the local level in Disaster Risk Management

According to the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act 2017, the responsibility of municipality/rural municipality and ward for management of disaster risk through local level has been explained below:

  • Establishment and Implementation of Disaster Risk Management through local level government
  • Allocation of fund for the management of Disaster and its risk at the local level
  • Formulation of local-level law for the management of disaster and its risk and implementing it.
  • Providing awareness to the local people about disaster risk and safety measures
  • Recognized the roles of private and non-governmental organizations
  • Maintaining balance on globalization, urbanization, global warming, and disaster risk management.

Who should use the toolkit?

Municipalities, elected representatives, staff, local people, community leaders.

General Features

  • Effectively engage local communities with DRR activities and integrate their concern with government priorities.
  • Awareness among local people about Disaster
  • Risk Reduction and Management
  • Tools for systematic disaster management, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation are included.
  • The tools can be used depending upon the technical, economic, and human resources available at the local level.

Urban focused Disaster Risk Reduction and Management tools

Steps/processes followed while developing toolkit such as vulnerability assessment, preparedness, action planning, implementation and monitoring included as per given DRM cycle. All the given tools are explained in the matrix in “what, why, when, who and how” model and areexplained into four major steps:

Step 1: Vulnerability assessment of urban communities

Step 2: Disaster risk reduction preparedness planning

Step 3: Action planning and implementation

Step 4: Monitoring, evaluation, and learning

Step 1-4: Institutional development 

 Step 1: Vulnerability assessment of urban communities

  • Secondary data collection and review
  • Hazard assessment – types, trend, reason/factor, frequency, impact
  • Context analysis (supportive) – stakeholders analysis, local governance, policy strategy/structure, social relation, employment, market, service demand and supply, coordination for service, urban planning, environment risk, access to public places, gender and do no harm concept)
  • Hazard mapping – using GIS
  • Historical profile
  • Seasonal calendar (supportive)
  • Institutional and social networks analysis (supportive)
  • Semi-structured interview-FGD, group, individual, KII
  • Problem tree analysis (cause, problems and effect)
  • Livelihood and coping strategy analysis (asset, resource and their associated risk, the capacity of local communities to mitigate risk)
  • Compilation analysis and use information during planning
  • Pressure and release model (supportive)
  • Urban system analysis- hazard probability, damage potential, ranking, response and adaptive capacity

Step 2: Disaster risk reduction preparedness planning

  • Disaster risk reduction preparedness plan
  • Disaster response plan
  • Risk sensitive land use planning (supportive)

Step 3: Action planning and implementation

  • Formation of volunteer/taskforce and mobilization
  • Municipality Emergency Operation Center guidelines
  • Disaster Rrisk Reduction Management fund
  • Early warning system

Step 4: Monitoring, evaluation and learning

  • Resilient measurement on the basis of prioritized activities
  • Resilient measurement on the basis of output and outcome
  • Learning

Step 1-4: Institutional development (step1-4)

  • Institutional capacity assessment
  • Mainstreaming Gender and Social Inclusion into disaster risk reduction

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